Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXD)

The GIXD mode can be used to determine the lateral organization at the interface.  In particular, if the top layer is organized, then two-dimensional Bragg reflections can be observed.  In GIXD experiments the incident beam, ki is kept below the critical angle creating an evanescent wave with finite penetration depth into the bulk of the sample thus enhancing signals from the surface.  An ordered 2D system gives rise to rod like Bragg reflections that contain information on the electron density along the z-axis of the ordered objects.  The total cross section for scattering from a 2D system is in general very small and X-ray flux from synchrotron sources is required.

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